Senin, 21 Januari 2013

Using Gerunds and Infinitives


Gerunds and infinitives are verb forms that can take the place of a noun in a sentence. The following guidelines and lists will help you figure out whether a gerund or infinitive is needed.

Following a verb (gerund or infinitive)
Both gerunds and infinitives can replace a noun as the object of a verb. Whether you use a gerund or an infinitive depends on the main verb in the sentence. Consult the lists below to find out which form to use following which verbs.
I expect to have the report done by Friday.
[INFINITIVE]
I anticipate having the report done by Friday.
[GERUND]

Some common verbs followed by a gerund (note that phrasal verbs, marked here with *, always fall into this category):
acknowledge
She acknowledged receiving assistance.
* accuse of
He was accused of smuggling contraband goods.
admit
They admitted falsifying the data.
advise
The author advises undertaking further study.
anticipate
He anticipates having trouble with his supervisor.
appreciate
I appreciated having a chance to read your draft.
avoid
He avoided answering my question.
complete
I finally completed writing my thesis.
consider
They will consider granting you money.
defer
She deferred writing her report.
delay
We delayed reporting the results until we were sure.
deny
They denied copying the information.
discuss
They discussed running the experiments again.
entail
This review procedure entails repeating the test.
* look after
He will look after mailing the tickets.
* insist on
He insisted on proofreading the article again.
involve
This procedure involves testing each sample twice.
justify
My results justify taking drastic action.
mention
The author mentions seeing this event.
* plan on
They had planned on attending the conference.
postpone
The committee has postponed writing the report.
recall
I cannot recall getting those results before.
resent
He resented spending so much time on the project.
recommend
She recommends reading Marx.
resist
The writer resists giving any easy answers.
risk
She risks losing her viewing time.
sanction
They will not sanction copying without permission.
suggest
I suggest repeating the experiment.
* take care of
He will take care of sending it to you.
tolerate
She can't tolerate waiting for results.
Some common verbs followed by an infinitive:


afford
We cannot afford to hesitate.
agree
The professors agreed to disagree.
appear
The results appear to support your theory.
arrange
They had arranged to meet at noon.
beg
I beg to differ with you.
care
Would you care to respond?
claim
She claims to have new data.
consent
Will you consent to run for office?
decide
When did he decide to withdraw?
demand
I demand to see the results of the survey.
deserve
She deserves to have a fair hearing.
expect
The committee expects to decide by tomorrow.
fail
The trial failed to confirm his hypothesis.
hesitate
I hesitate to try the experiment again.
hope
What do you hope to accomplish?
learn
We have learned to proceed with caution.
manage
How did she manage to find the solution?
neglect
The author neglected to provide an index.
need
Do we need to find new subjects?
offer
We could offer to change the time of the meeting.
plan
They had planned to attend the conference.
prepare
He was not prepared to give a lecture.
pretend
I do not pretend to know the answer.
promise
They promise to demonstrate the new equipment.
refuse
She refused to cooperate any longer.
seem
Something seems to be wrong with your design.
struggle
We struggled to understand her point of view.
swear
He swears to tell the truth.
threaten
The team threatened to stop their research.
volunteer
Will you volunteer to lead the group?
wait
We could not wait to hear the outcome.
want
She did not want to go first.
wish
Do you wish to participate?

Following a preposition (gerund only)
Gerunds can follow a preposition; infinitives cannot.
Can you touch your toes without bending your knees?
He was fined for driving over the speed limit.
She got the money by selling the car.
A corkscrew is a tool for taking corks out of bottles.
Note: Take care not to confuse the preposition "to" with an infinitive form, or with an auxiliary form such as have to, used to, going to
He went back to writing his paper.
[PREPOSITION + GERUND]
I used to live in Mexico.
[AUXILIARY + VERB]
I want to go home.
[VERB + INFINITIVE]

Following an indirect object (infinitive only)
Some verbs are followed by a pronoun or noun referring to a person, and then an infinitive. Gerunds cannot be used in this position.
Some common verbs followed by an indirect object plus an infinitive:
ask
I must ask you to reconsider your statement.
beg
They begged her to stay for another term.
cause
His findings caused him to investigate further.
challenge
Wilkins challenged Watson to continue the research.
convince
Can we convince them to fund our study?
encourage
She encouraged him to look beyond the obvious.
expect
They did not expect us to win an award.
forbid
The author forbade me to change his wording.
force
They cannot force her to reveal her sources.
hire
Did the department hire him to teach the new course?
instruct
I will instruct her to prepare a handout.
invite
We invite you to attend the ceremony.
need
They need her to show the slides.
order
He ordered the group to leave the building.
persuade
Can we persuade you to contribute again?
remind
Please remind him to check the references.
require
They will require you to submit an outline.
teach
We should teach them to follow standard procedures.
tell
Did she tell him to make three copies?
urge
I urge you to read the instructions before you begin.
want
I do not want you to have an accident.
warn
Why didn't they warn me to turn down the heat?